Cluster Munition Remnants

Anti-Personnel Mines

  • Article 5 deadline

    1 February 2028

  • Performance


Performance Indicator Score
Problem understood 6
Target date for completion of mine clearance 4
Targeted clearance 5
Efficient clearance 4
National funding of programme 5
Timely clearance 5
Land release system in place 5
National mine action standards 5
Reporting on progress 5
Improving performance 6
Performance score 5.0

Performance Commentary

Iraq’s mine action programme underwent major adjustments in 2017 to deal with the extraordinary scale and complexity of contamination found in areas recaptured from Islamic State which has largely eclipsed extensive “legacy” contamination from earlier conflicts in Federal Iraq. In the last quarter of 2017, Federal Iraq took back control of much of the “Grey Area”, an area previously under the control of Islamic State, after liberation shared between Federal and Kurdish authorities. As a result, most of the liberated areas under Kurdish management now come under Federal control. The shift caused a hiatus in the operations of international demining organisations that were heavily concentrated in the Kurdistan region, but also led to a significant and overdue expansion of international capacity in Federal Iraq. Commercial operators continued to focus on clearing infrastructure, public utilities, and buildings in support of stabilisation, while non-governmental organisations (NGOs) largely conducted clearance of belts of mines of an improvised nature in rural areas. Almost no clearance of “legacy” landmine contamination from previous conflicts occurred. The degree of progress was obscured by the lack of reliable data from the national mine action authorities.

Recommendations for Action

  • The Directorate for Mine Action (DMA) and the Iraq Kurdistan Mine Action Agency (IKMAA) should acknowledge and report contamination by anti-personnel mines of an improvised nature as part of Iraq’s Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention (APMBC) Article 7 obligations.
  • Iraq should update its Article 5 deadline extension request to take account of contamination by landmines of an improvised nature that are outlawed by the APMBC, and set out a strategy for dealing with them.
  • In supporting the mine action authorities in Iraq, the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS) should seek to ensure that reporting disaggregates anti-personnel mines of an improvised nature from other types of improvised explosive devices (IEDs), so that Iraq can comply with the provisions of Article 5 and Article 7 of the APMBC.
  • The DMA should review its information management to eliminate glaring errors and inconsistencies in the presentation of data, harmonise reporting of demining organisations, and facilitate timely access to accurate data.
  • Iraq’s Ministry of Defence and Ministry of Interior should submit comprehensive and timely data to the DMA on the results of mine action activities.
  • Iraq should streamline visa procedures to eliminate lengthy delays for staff deployments at the expense of Iraq’s mine action operations.

Download the full "Clearing the Mines 2018" report for Iraq

Click here to download the "Clearing the Mines 2018" report for Iraq.