Somalia is contaminated with anti-personnel mines and cluster munition remnants

Cluster Munition Remnants

Anti-Personnel Mines
  • Performance


Performance Indicator Score
Problem understood 3
Target date for completion of clearance 3
Targeted clearance 4
Efficient clearance 5
National funding of programme 3
Timely clearance 4
Land release system in place 6
National mine action standards 5
Reporting on progress 3
Improving performance 6
Performance score 4.2

Performance Commentary

In 2017, mine action management in Somalia continued to be divided into two geographical regions: in the five federal states of south-central Somalia under the Somali Explosives Management Agency (SEMA), and in the self-declared region of Somaliland under the Somaliland Mine Action Centre (SMAC).

Somalia has made little progress so far in implementing its obligations under Article 4 of the Convention on Cluster Munitions (CCM), since becoming a state party in 2015. No overview of the extent of contamination from cluster munition remnants (CMR) exists. No survey specific to CMR was conducted and no clearance of CMR was reported again in 2017. There continues to be a need for much greater support for SEMA and greater priority on the implementation of mine action operations.

A significant step forward, however, occurred at the end of 2017 with the elaboration of a new national mine action strategic plan for 2017–20. It did not, though, specifically address CMR clearance.

In addition, after many years of significant challenges, including difficult working relations with the authorities in the mine action sector, operators reported an improvement during the year, including better coordination between SEMA, its regional offices, and operators. The HALO Trust in south-central Somalia has been able to deploy survey and clearance teams despite persistently high levels of insecurity. For the first time, survey and risk education teams were able to be deployed in all five of south-central Somalia’s federal states, by Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA), in partnership with national mine action organisations.

Recommendations for Action

  • Somalia should ensure the timely survey and clearance of CMR in accordance with its CCM obligations, alongside efforts to address wider explosive remnants of war (ERW) contamination.
  • Somalia should elaborate a resourced plan to fulfil its Article 4 survey and clearance obligations.
  • Somalia should commit more resources for SEMA and mine action operations.
  • Greater efforts should be made to clarify SEMA’s status within the Federal Government of Somalia (FGS).
  • SEMA should ensure that bureaucratic blockages to operations are lifted and permissions and authorisation to carry out mine action activities facilitated.
  • Continued efforts should be undertaken to support SEMA to manage the Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) database, with the provision of additional training and resources for its management. Data on mine action should be reported and recorded according to International Mine Action Standards (IMAS) terminology.
  • The FGS and Somali Minister of Internal Security should formally endorse Somalia’s new National Mine Action Strategic Plan 2017–2020.
  • Somalia’s National Technical Standards and Guidelines (NTSGs) should be revised to ensure their relevance for Somalia and present best practices for tackling the nature of the mine and CMR threat in Somalia.
  • Somalia should develop a resource mobilisation strategy and initiate dialogue with development partners on long-term support for mine action, including to address CMR.

Download the full 2018 report for Somalia

Click here to download the full "Clearing Cluster Munition Remnants 2018" report for Somalia.