Cluster Munition Remnants

Anti-Personnel Mines

  • Article 5 deadline

    31 December 2025

  • Performance


Performance Criterion Score
Understanding of anti-personnel mine contamination (20% of overall score) 7
National ownership and programme management (10% of overall score) 8
Gender (10% of overall score) 8
Information management and reporting (10% of overall score) 7
Planning and tasking (10% of overall score) 7
Land release system (20% of overall score) 6
Land release outputs and Article 5 compliance (20% of overall score) 7
Performance score 7.0

Key Developments

Cambodia continues to make progress in planning, prioritisation, and land release of mined areas, with clearance and technical survey output double that of the previous year, despite the impact of COVID-19. However, Cambodia has not been able to secure the additional funding and significantly increased clearance capacity planned for in its 2019 Article 5 extension request, and it is therefore not on track to complete anti-personnel mine clearance by 2025.


Furthermore, significant amounts of previously unrecorded suspected mined areas were added to the database in 2020, including as part of the baseline re-survey (BLS), but there remain concerns as to the extent to which new areas entered into the database are evidence-based.

Recommendations for Action

  • The Cambodian Mine Action and Victim Assistance Authority (CMAA) should prioritise funding for quality assurance (QA) capacity in order to increase the number of QA teams and train them to monitor survey activities of operators across the sector, including ensuring that all survey is evidence-based; that cancellation and/or reclassification of mined area is applied wherever appropriate; and that new, previously unrecorded mined areas are verified before entry onto the national database.
  • The CMAA should continue its efforts, through projects such as the data verification project, to attempt to identify non-evidence-based and inaccurate survey data included in the Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) database and should discuss the possibility of cancelling them via desk analysis.
  • Cambodia should continue to improve its information management systems by eliminating discrepancies with operator data and ensuring synchronisation of reporting.
  • The CMAA should also seek to develop more cost-efficient land release methods to deal with low-density mined areas. Linked to this, the CMAA should review the Cambodian Mine Action Standards (CMAS) to determine whether the criteria for cancellation and reclamation of mined areas can be strengthened.
  • The CMAA should establish a clear timeframe and resource mobilisation strategy for equipping, training, and deployment of the proposed 2,000 additional deminers from the Cambodian Armed Forces. The CMAA could also consider upscaling the number of deminers through other national entities, such as Cambodian Mine Action Centre (CMAC).
  • Cambodia should commence the next clearance task as part of the pilot border clearance project with Thailand, as soon as the COVID-19 situation permits, and should seek to conclude a bilateral cooperation mechanism that would enable both countries to survey and clear all mined areas along the shared border.
  • Cambodia should finalise the new Gender Mainstreaming in Mine Action Plan (GMAP) for 2021–25, which will replace the existing GMAP 2018–22, and provide regular progress updates on implementation of the plan.
  • The CMAA should ensure that Mine Action Planning Units (MAPUs) work closely with the local communities, to help ensure that elaboration of annual work plans is well informed, focusing on contaminated areas requiring clearance and identifying those mined areas that can be cancelled through non-technical survey rather than released through clearance.

Download the full "Clearing the Mines 2021" report for Cambodia

Click here to download the "Clearing the Mines 2021" report for Cambodia.